Raising the Bar: Why “Standards and Accountability” cannot improve Education

There is currently a movement underway to reverse the adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS).  Those opposed to the Common Core have a wide variety of reasons, ranging from fear of federal control of curriculum, to privacy concerns about intrusive data collection planned, and controversy about whether the standards are more or less rigorous than the former state standards which are being replaced.  While these details can be debated, the more fundamental question is whether “standards and accountability” can reform or improve education.

The idea of “standards and accountability” begins by attempting to define rigorous standards of what K-12 students at each grade level ought to know and be able to do.  [Missing the important point that some students should be held to higher expectations, shouldn’t they?]  The idea goes that if these standards are good enough, then if students can meet them, we can be happy that our schools are doing a good job.  The accountability part of the equation is to give tests that measure whether or not students can meet the standard expectations.  Supposedly then schools that help nearly all students meet the standards are doing a good job.  Conversely schools in which many students don’t meet the standards must necessarily be doing a poor job.  If the standards are too easy, the schools are getting off with doing a poor job.  If the standards are rigorous enough we can force the schools to do a better job—the threats of accountability will cause the schools to self-reform and improve student scores on the tests and thereby achievement.  That’s the idea.  But, in real life it doesn’t work that way.  Why not?  There are several reasons.

First of all, the standards are too vague to be measured as met or not met in any objective sense.  For example, such standards as, “Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.” is not measurable.  There are an infinite number of ways one could try to measure that and how well a student would have to do on such a test to show they “understood.” And on top of that, there are hundreds of these unmeasurable standards in the Common Core.

Secondly, because the standards themselves aren’t measurable, proficiency is not based on pre-established criteria, standard by standard. Students don’t have to pass all the different standards, or even pass a set number of them.  Instead proficiency is randomly defined by a cut-off score on the entire test.  Unfortunately, because the details of the test are secret, teachers don’t really know exactly which skills are tested, and what students must know or how well they should know them to be considered proficient.  They are trying to hit the target, but they aren’t actually allowed to see it.

Finally, everyone wants to raise the cut-off scores, to expect the lowest students to do more to be considered proficient.  If everyone can do it, then it must not be rigorous enough.

Raising the bar–doesn’t make you a better jumper.

Making the standards more rigorous (which many people want to do) is quite commonly referred to as “raising the bar.”  This metaphor compares academic standards to the bar over which high jumpers sail.  Raising the bar occurs each round in a track meet, as the bar is placed higher, and then the competitors must jump higher each round.  But what is the effect of raising the bar in a track meet?

The effect of raising the bar is to gradually eliminate the less able competitors each round, until only the best is left to win the meet.  Raising the bar does not make everyone equal.  Raising the bar does not make everyone better.  Raising the bar has the effect of sorting out the athletes on the basis of their skill.  No one dreams of using it to rank the coaches, because a large portion of a high jumper’s success has to do with innate ability, rather than just the quality of the coach.  Interestingly, before federal involvement in education and before standards and accountability, standardized academic tests were perceived in exactly the same way.  The results on an academic achievement test told you how accomplished the student was, and were never used to make judgments about the quality of the teacher or the school.

If raising the bar does not make everyone a better jumper, why is it even imagined as a method to reform schools?  Standards would operate, if they work at all, about as well as track meets work to make track coaches better.  In my experience most coaches hope to recruit athletes with more ability—so their performance makes the coach look good.

The same thing happens with schools.  Schools that enroll students with greater ability have high tests scores and are considered good.  Schools that enroll students with more learning challenges and less ability have lower test scores and are considered bad.  Nothing useful is accomplished by this exercise. Absolutely nothing.

I know from first-hand experience that parents can tell whether the school their child is attending is challenging, motivating and effectively teaching their child.  Not all schools are right for all children.  Often siblings need and thrive in very different kinds of schools. The average test scores in the whole school is irrelevant to whether the school is doing a good job for their child.  We don’t need this whole standards and accountability regimen, we need to give parents the freedom to choose schools and give educators a chance to create a variety of new, innovative schools that operate free of the bureaucratic restraints of our current one-size-fits-all system.

Posted by donc1950@gmail.com

Researching the answers to today’s problems I found the best answers among writers who identify as libertarian. Maximize freedom, rely on the free market to solve most of our issues, rely on personal responsibility, promote more voluntary charity.